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Double-space the body of your text, including long quotations set off from the text.

Use headline-style capitalization for all titles in your text and in-text citation but not in References.

In References, capitalize the first words of the titles of works; all major words of journal titles should be capitalized. After a colon the first word should be capitalized also.

Italicize the titles of books and other long works.

Use quotation marks around the titles of periodical articles, short stories, poems, and other short works not published separately in the body of your text only but not in References.

You should set off a long quotation of more than forty words by indenting the entire quotation; do not use quotation marks.

Words, punctuation, or italicization not present in the original should be indicated with square brackets, e.g.: [emphasis added].

When referring to words as words, put them in single quotation marks.


Topos uses APA documentation style.

APA recommends in-text citations that refer readers to a list of references. An in-text citation gives the author of the source, the year of publication, and a page number in parentheses for direct quotations and most paraphrases. At the end of the paper, a list of references provides publication information.

Topos uses the author-date in-text citation system and thus it does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes. However, if needed, explanatory footnotes may be included. When using a footnote, insert a superscript number following a punctuation mark—except for dashes.


Scientists examined—over several years1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.3)


1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species.
² Text
³ Text

Place all footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the footnotes section of the page. Double-space throughout.

Content Notes provide supplemental information; so be brief and limit your comments to a short paragraph. Content Notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.



1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters three and four, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.


Label each table with an Arabic numeral (Table 1, Table 2, etc.) and provide a clear title that identifies the table’s subject. The label and the title should appear on separate lines above the table, flush left. Below the table, give its source. For titles of tables use headline-style capitalization.

If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a copyright note. Begin the citation with “Note.”


Note. From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122. Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission

For each figure and illustration, place a label and a caption below the figure, flush left; in these use sentence-style capitalization.  The label and caption do not appear on separate lines. The word ‘Figure’ should be abbreviated to ‘Fig.’ and numbered sequentially.


Basic format:

Upstone, S. (2009). Spatial politics in the postcolonial novel. Farnham: Ashgate.

The References at the end of your article lists every work you have cited in your text and consulted when writing your article (except for sacred texts and personal communication).

Alphabetize the list of references by the last names of the authors or editors. If there is no identified author, alphabetize by title. For model entries please check “Topos References Guide.”

Last Updated ( Friday, 30 March 2012 11:50 )