Home For Authors References Guide



The alphabetical list of works cited at the end of the paper is titled “References.”

Alphabetize entries by authors’ last names, initials only are used for all first and middle names; if a work has no author, alphabetize it by its title. All authors’ names are inverted.

Titles of books are italicized; titles of articles are neither italicized nor put in quotation marks. Use sentence capitalization.

1. Basic format

Upstone, S. (2009). Spatial politics in the postcolonial novel. Farnham: Ashgate.

2. Multiple authors

List up to seven authors by last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author.

Botting, F., & Townshend, D. (2004). Gothic: Critical concepts in literary and cultural studies. London and New York: Taylor & Francis.

3. Two or more works by the same author

Use the author’s name for all entries. List the entries by year, the earliest first. If there are two or more works by the same author in the same year, add a, b, c, etc.

Elkind, D. (2008a, Spring). Can we play? Greater Good, 4(4), 14-17.
Elkind, D. (2008b, June 27). The price of hurrying children [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blogs/psychologytoday.com/blog/digital-children

4. Book with an editor

Booth, A., (Ed.). (1993). Famous last words: Changes in gender and narrative closure. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

5. Book with and author, an editor, and a translator

Bakhtin, M. M. (2004). The dialogic imagination: Four Essays. (M. Holquist, Ed.; C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Transl.). Austin: University of Texas Press. (Original work published 1975).

6. Articles in print periodicals

For a journal or a magazine, give the volume and issue numbers; italicize the volume number and put the issue number, not italicized, in parentheses. For all periodicals provide the range of pages.

When an article does not appear on consecutive pages, give all page numbers: A1, A17.

Cite as a journal article, but give the year and the month for monthly magazines; add the day for weekly magazines.

McKibben, B. (2007, October). Carbon’s new math. National Geographic, 212(4), 32-37.

7. Abstract of a journal article

Lahm, K. (2008). Inmate-on-inmate assault: A multilevel examination of prison violence [Abstract]. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(1), 120-137.

8. Letter to the editor

Park, T. (2008, August). Defining the line [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 299(2), 10.

9. Review

Give the author and title of the review (if any) and, in brackets, the type of work, the title, and the author for a book or the year for a motion picture. If the review has no author or title, use the material in brackets as the title.

Applebaum, A. (2008, February 14). A movie that matters [Review of the motion picture Katyn, 2007]. The New York Review of Books, 55(2), 13-15.

Agents of change. (2008, February 2). [Review of the book The power of unreasonable people: How social entrepreneurs create markets that change the world, by J. Elkington & P. Hartigan]. The Economist, 386(8565), 94.

10. Edition other than the first

McKeon, M. (2002). The origins of the English novel 1600-1740. (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

11. Article or chapter in an edited book or an anthology

Bodenhamer, D. J. (2010). The potential of spatial humanities. In D. J. Bodenhamer, J. Corrigan, T. M. Harris, & J. Parini (Eds.), The spatial humanities: GIS and the future of humanities scholarship (pp. 14-30). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

12. Multivolume work

Brown, I., Clancy, T. O., & Pittock, M. (2006). The Edinburgh history of Scottish literature: Modern transformations: New identities (from 1918) (Vol. 3). T. O. Clancy, S. Manning, & M. Pittock. (Ser. Eds.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

13. Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword

Frank, F. S. (2003). Introduction. In H. Walpole, The castle of Otranto: A gothic story; and The mysterious mother: A tragedy (pp. 11-34). Peterborough: Broadview.

14. Article in a reference work

Konijn, E. A. (2008). Affects and media exposure. In W. Donsbach (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of communication (Vol. 1, pp. 123-129). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

15. Book with a title in its title

Marcus, L. (Ed.). (1999). Sigmund Freud’s The interpretation of dreams: New interdisciplinary essays. Manchester: Manchester University Press.


When citing an online article, include publication information as for a print periodical and add information about the online version. Online articles and books sometimes include a DOI (digital object identifier). APA uses the DOI, when available, in place of a URL in reference list entries.
Use a retrieval date for an online source only if the content is likely to change.

If you must break a DOI or a URL at the end of a line, break it after a double slash or before any other mark of punctuation.

16. Article in an online journal

Ashe, D. D., & McCutcheon, L. E. (2001). Shyness, loneliness, and attitude toward celebrities. Current Research in Social Psychology, 6, 124-133. Retrieved from http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html

17. Article from a database

Howard, K. R. (2007). Childhood overweight: Parental perceptions and readiness for change. The Journal of School Nursing, 23, 73-79. Retrieved from http://jsn.sagepub.com/

18. Online book

Plato. (1995). Ion. (B. Jowett, Transl.). ILT Digital Classics.  Retrieved from http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/projects/digitexts/plato/ion/ion.html

19. Podcast

Chesney, M. (2007, September 13). Gender differences in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (No. 12827) [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from University of California Television website: http://www.uctv.tv/ondemand

20. Weblog (blog) post

Give the writer’s name, the date of the post, the subject, the label “Web log post,” and the URL. For a response to a post, use the label “Web log comment.”

Kellermann, M. (2007, May 23). Disclosing clinical trials [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.iq.harvard.edu/blog/sss/archives/2007/05/disclosing_clin.html

21. Online audio or video file

Chomsky, N. (n.d.). The new imperialism [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.rhapsody.com/noamchomsky

22. Entry in a wiki
Ethnomethodology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2008, from http://en.stswiki.org/index.php/Ethnomethodology


23. Unpublished dissertation

Mitchell, R. D. (2007). The Wesleyan Quadrilateral: Relocating the conversation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Claremont School of Theology, Claremont, CA.

24. Paper, poster, address, lecture, speech presented

Anderson, D. N. (2008, May). Cab-hailing and the micropolitics of gesture. Paper presented at the Arizona Linguistics and Anthropology Symposium, Tucson, AZ.

25. Published interview

Murphy, C. (2007, June 22). As the Romans did [Interview by G. Hahn]. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/

26. Work of art

Weber, J. (1992). Toward freedom [Outdoor mural]. Sherman Oaks, CA.

Newkirk, K. (2006). Gainer (part II). Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL.

27. Presentation slides

Boeninger, C. F. (2008, August). Web 2.0 tools for reference and instructional services [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from http://libraryvoice.com/archives/2008/08/04/opal-20-conference-presentation-slides/

28. Film or video (motion picture)

Give the director, producer, and other relevant contributors, followed by the release year, the title, the description “Motion picture” in brackets, the country, and the studio. Indicate the medium in brackets in place of “Motion picture.” If the original release date and the date of the DVD are different, add “Original release” and that date in parentheses at the end.

Guggenheim, D. (Director), & Bender, L. (Producer). (2006). An inconvenient truth [DVD]. United States: Paramount Home Entertainment.

29. Television program

List the producer and the date the program was aired. Give the title, followed by “Television broadcast” in brackets, the city, and the television network or service.

Pratt, C. (Executive producer). (2008, October 5). Face the nation [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

Fanning, D. (Executive producer). (2008). Frontline [Television series]. Boston, MA: WGBH.

Smith, M. (Writer/producer). (2008). Heat [Television series episode]. In D. Fanning (Executive producer), Frontline. Boston, MA: WGBH.

30. Sound recording
Thomas, G. (1996). Breath. On Didgeridoo: Ancient sound of the future [CD]. Oxnard, CA: Aquarius International Music.

Last Updated ( Friday, 30 March 2012 11:40 )